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Glossary - C

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"Computer-Aided Design" or "Computer-Aided Drafting" is the creation of detailed technical drawings using a computer. The terms are frequently used interchangeably, and CAD can sometimes mean "computer-aided design and drafting". The acronym "CADD" is also used in this regard. Source: A4


Relating to the location of land parcels and their relationships. Source: A4


A term used to refer to the stock of assets, land, including property, plant and equipment, infrastructure assets, intangible assets, financial assets and inventories, that an agency owns and/or controls, and uses in the delivery of services. The term is also sometimes used to refer to capital grants made to other entities. Source: S2 (AS:3595)

Capital Cost

The total cost incurred by an organization in procuring additional or upgraded assets. Source: A6

Capital Expenditure Review Process

A process whereby capital projects are evaluated according to certain criteria and prioritized for funding allocation. Source: S3

Capital Investment Strategic Plan (CISP)

The strategic planning process for capital investment in physical assets through the acquisition of new physical assets and the material improvement of existing physical assets. Source:S3

Capital Projects

The procurement of physical assets through the expenditure of capital funds. Source: S3

Cash-based Budgeting

The form of annual budgeting based on cash received within a year and cash paid in the same period. Under cash budgeting, assets are treated as one-off items, with the full cost being recognized only at the time of purchase, even though assets are used over a number of years in the delivery of services. Source: A4

Cash Flow

The stream of costs and/or benefits over time resulting from a project investment or ownership of an asset. Source: A6

Cash Flow Statement

A financial statement that reports the inflows and outflows of cash for a particular period for the operating, investing and financing activities undertaken. Source: A6 (modified)

Chart of Accounts

An itemized listing of income and expenditure components developed for a particular asset type (including elements of a building) for financial accounting and life cycle. A systematic listing of all accounts (eg. Payroll, office supplies, cash) a used in an organization's accounting system often accompanied by their definition.

CIP Validation

The validation of the Capital Investment Plan. A review of the processes the organization has followed to develop the CIP, and the accuracy of the cost and timing elements that have been included.


The person or organization requiring and paying for building related work or a specific professional service. In some contracts the client is identified as the principal. Source: S2


"Capacity, Management, Operations and Maintenance", the USEPA's Proposed SSO Rule under PL 92-500, The Clean Water Act. CMOM is a comprehensive program constituting a proposed regulatory rule for "proper operation and maintenance" of the wastewater system as required under the Clean Water Act, with a particular focus on the collection system.


Specific parts of an asset having independent physical or functional identity and having specific attributes such as, different life expectancy, maintenance regimes, risk or criticality. Source: A4

Concept Development Plan

A plan showing in outline, the overall development intentions for an area, including land use, major transport links, utility networks, drainage, open space and built form. Source: C1

Concept Phase

A phase during service delivery planning when all potential delivery strategies are evaluated, and the preferred strategy selected and documented. Source: A4

Conceptual Design

The initial design outlining an idea developed to meet a specific service delivery need. Source: N1

Condition Assessment

A technical assessment of an asset based on a physical inspection, for the purpose of determining its condition and remaining useful life relative to a defined standard. Source: S2

Condition Based Preventative Maintenance

Preventive maintenance initiated as a result of knowledge of an item from routine or continuous checking. Source: L1

Confidence Level Rating

A rating of how much confidence can be placed in decisions made about asset management. For each of 15 quality elements in an organization, eg "understanding the existing standards of service", the process and the quality of data are assessed as a percentage of best appropriate practice. The average of the two percentages is calculated, to give the confidence level rating. More information.


The outcome of an event or situation expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being a loss, injury, disadvantage or gain. Source: S2 (AS/NZS 4360: 1999)


The process of erection, installation, fabrication, assembly and commissioning of building or civil components at the permanent site of the facility by the Contractor. Source: N1

The process of erecting a structure or assembling materials, generally synonymous with building. Source: G3

The medium in which a building is built, e.g. concrete construction, steel construction, timber construction. Source: G3

Construction Manager

A person or organization engaged by the Principal to co-ordinate and manage the construction site and pay the trade contractors as agent for, and on behalf of, the Principal. Source: G2

A generic term. A person or organization managing construction activities in whole or in part on behalf of one of the parties to a construction contract. The role of the construction manager will vary between parties to a contract, e.g. Principal, contractor or subcontractor. Source: S2


The written documents agreed to and legally binding between the Principal and the Contractor, which detail the requirements and conditions that are to be met to complete the work successfully. The terms of agreement are usually set out in writing and specific legal obligations are created by the signing of the contract. Source: A4

Contract Administration

The administration of a contract, including the selection of the successful bider, and use of agreed procedures to ensure that contractual obligations are fulfilled throughout the period of the contract. Source: G3

The administration of a contract following the appointment of the successful bider. Includes the use of agreed procedures to ensure that contractual obligations are fulfilled throughout the period of the contract but does not involve bid evaluation. Source: L1

Contract Administrator

A generic term. A person or organization undertaking duties relating to contract administration for or on behalf of one of the parties to a contract. The duties may vary with the individual. Source: N1

Contract Documents

Those things agreed by the parties to a contract as representing the basis of the contract and its execution. They generally include the bid documents (with the exception of the bid conditions), the bided documents as accepted and any contract related document issued by one party and received by the other. Source: N1


The individual or organization responsible for the performance of the work under the contract. Source: G3

Contracting Out

The process of inviting the private sector to carry out in-house activities under the direct control of an agency, and on occasions employing the agency's resources. Source: N1


The direct and indirect impact (specifically negative impact) of an activity, including money, time, labor, disruption, goodwill, political and intangible items. Source: S2

Cost - Capital

The cost associated with the development of a project, including site acquisition, design, construction, interim financing, and project management (Source: G3), or the cost incurred by the agency in procuring additional or upgraded assets. Source: T2


The cost of ownership including operating, maintenance, cleaning, alterations, replacement and support costs. Source: G3

Cost - Current

The cost of an asset measured by reference to the lowest cost at which the gross future economic benefits embodied in the asset could currently be obtained in the normal course of business. Source: T2

Cost - Current Replacement

The cost of the future economic benefits expected to be derived from use of the asset, estimated as the current cost of the future economic benefits of the most appropriate replacement facility. Source: N1

Cost - Current Reproduction

The current cost of reproducing (replicating) the asset in terms of both scale and technology. Source: S2

Cost - Estimated Total

All costs of a capital nature that are required to bring a project to completion. Costs include planning, construction, land and equipment. Does not include operating costs, staffing costs and the cost of maintenance and refurbishment that are included in whole of life costs. Source: S2

Costs - Recurrent

All costs, including the cost of finance, incurred in holding and operating an asset. Source: S2

Corrective Maintenance

The actions performed, as a result of failure, to restore an item to its original condition as far as practicable. Source: S2

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)

See "Benefit-Cost Analysis"

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)

Cost per unit of outcome - that is, total units of outcome of a service or project (eg. - number of students educated to a certain test score level) divided by the cost to achieve the outcome. Source: A4

Cost Driver

A factor that causes a change in output costs, i.e. it "drives" the cost. Source: A4

Criticality Rating

An asset's criticality rating is the mathematical product of the Potential of Failure (PoF) and Consequence of Failure (CoF) ratings. Criticality = (PoF) × (CoF). This number is used to place priority on items that require additional quality planning. Source: S1

Whereas, in project or program planning and administration, criticality can refer to those items that lie on the schedule's critical path - those elements that if not commenced and/or completed by the designated time, could adversely impact on both the cost and completion time. Source: A4


Combineed Sewer Overflow

Current Controls

Current Controls (design and process) are the mechanisms that prevent the Cause of the Failure Mode from occurring, or which detect the failure before it reaches the Customer. This is particularly applicable to FMECA. Source: A4

Current Market Buying Price

See "Cost"

Current Replacement Cost

See "Cost"

Current Reproduction Cost

See "Cost"


Customers are internal and external departments, people, and processes that will be adversely affected by service and /or product failure. Similarly, customers are those people, organizations and departments who purchase or consume services or products of a department. Source: A4

Customer Charter/Contract

Documents that set out levels of service agreed with customers/representative groups, timelines for delivery, consequences if levels of service are not met, etc.  

Customer Consultative Groups

Focus groups representing key customer interest groups to assist the Corporation in its determination of level service and cost for provision of the services. Source: A4

Customer/ Stakeholder Demand

The demand for services and expectations of level of service expected by the users of the service. Source: G1

Customer/ Stakeholder Surveys

Surveys used to assess the levels of service required by customers/stakeholders. This can include internal and external customers and other stakeholders.